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被遗忘的细菌: 肺炎链球菌 & 肺炎球菌疫苗新加坡

11月 7, 2022

 

1.   什么是肺炎球菌感染,为什么我需要注意?

 

肺炎球菌感染由肺炎链球菌引起。它会导致肺部(肺炎)、耳朵(中耳炎)、大脑(脑膜炎)和血液(菌血症)感染。其感染也是成人尤其是老年人发病和死亡的重要原因。

 

 

2.   哪些人群需要肺炎球菌疫苗,它将如何守护您的健康?

 

根据国家成人免疫计划 (NAIS),建议所有 65 岁及以上的人接种肺炎球菌疫苗。此外,还建议年龄<65岁、有肺炎球菌感染风险或肺炎球菌感染严重并发症的人士接种疫苗。此类候选人的风险因素包括免疫功能受损、慢性易感疾病(慢性肺、心脏、肾脏或肝脏疾病和糖尿病)、脑膜炎风险增加(脑脊液漏、人工耳蜗植入的患者)、脾功能异常和侵袭性肺炎球菌疾病。研究表明,肺炎球菌疫苗可有效降低与肺炎球菌疾病相关的发病率和死亡率。    

3.   关于不同种类的肺炎球菌疫苗,我应该如何选择?

以下2种肺炎球菌疫苗可供选择:

 

  • 肺炎球菌结合疫苗 (PCV13)
  • 肺炎球菌多糖疫苗 (PPSV23)

 

肺炎球菌结合疫苗,可预防 13 种最常引起肺炎球菌疾病的肺炎球菌菌株,而肺炎球菌多糖疫苗 可预防 23 种菌株。与单独接种肺炎球菌多糖疫苗相比,在 PPSV23 之前接种PCV13 可在一些患者中提供更广泛的保护。

 

 

4.   肺炎球菌疫苗是否存在副作用?

 

接种的益处大于风险。接种疫苗后,有些人可能会在注射部位出现红肿和酸痛;有些人可能出现还会发烧、头痛和身体疼痛等症状。然而,这些副作用往往会在 2-3 天内自行消退。可以服用扑热息痛药物来帮助缓解疼痛和发烧。

 

极少数情况下,严重的过敏反应会在接种疫苗后的几分钟到几小时内发生。症状包括呼吸困难、喘息、眼睛或嘴唇肿胀和皮疹。如果您遇到任何这些症状,您应该立即寻求紧急医疗护理。

 

总之,肺炎球菌疫苗可用于预防严重感染。联系我们在新加坡的疫苗接种诊所以了解更多信息!在康丽,我们有更靠近您地理位置的诊所:例如位于兀里的医疗诊所、乌节医疗诊所,以及武吉班让医疗诊所,都能为您提供更多的便利。

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